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THURSDAY, MAY 30, 2024 www.italoamericano.org L'Italo-Americano 2 " The Italian Repub- l i c : n o l o n g e r a romantic dream of c o n s p i r a t o r s , a n epic vision of poets; no longer a flag of rebellion and i n s u r r e c t i o n . T h e I t a l i a n Republic: a peaceful and lawful r e a l i t y d e s c e n d e d f r o m t h e heights of ideals into the con- crete realm of history, estab- lished without uprising or civil war into the regular practice of the constitution. [...] Without massacres, without turmoil, without rancor, the Republic was born in Italy from this bitter and exhausting two-year trial, in which our resolve, instead of dissolving, matured and strength- ened. For a moment, we can pause and be proud of ourselves: not to dwell on the endless mourning behind us or the immense reconstruction work ahead of us. Let us look up for a moment: dear shadows, you who pass by, paternal and frater- nal, distant and recent, we have not betrayed you! Here is our June 2: the birth of the Italian Republic. Beyond celebrating, it's history that counts From the Editor Republic: not improvised, not born out of a day of turbulent passion, but a Republic that was desired, contemplated, patient, and reasoned. Not a surge of generous romantic illu- sion, but a prolonged test of civil conscience and regained rea- son." This is how Piero Calamandrei, a future founding father of the Italian constitution, wrote under the title "Miracle of Rea- son," on the front page of Corriere della Sera on June 9, 1946. On that day, as announced by the newspaper, a ceremony at Montecitorio proclaimed the Italian Republic. On June 2, Italians—and for the first time, Italian women— chose the future of their country by voting against the monar- chy of King Umberto II. This pivotal date was later chosen to celebrate the birth of the Republic, even though it was only on June 13 that the Council of Ministers appointed Alcide De Gasperi as the provisional Head of State. On June 18, the Court of Cassation officially proclaimed the Republic's birth, and on June 25, the Constituent Assembly met for the first time, definitively establishing the new institutional framework of the State. However, as early as June 6, an editorial titled "Republican Dawn" by journalist Arrigo Jacchia in Il Messaggero captured the prevailing mood: "In the grand book of Italy's history, today marks the end of one era and the dawn of a new one. The immense popular emotion is the only appropriate com- mentary on the imposing solemnity of this event. Rhetorical displays, philosophical dissertations, and classic literary refer- ences would sound intolerably false. Emerging from the national consciousness, one great reality stands out: the Monarchy has fallen, and the dawn of the Italian Republic has risen. This urgent and essential clarification came through the free vote of the Italian people, ending a compromising and unstable situation that harmed the country in every aspect. Italy has now given itself a clear direction and shown the world its form and objectives." After 85 years of rule by the Savoy dynasty (including 20 years of fascist dictatorship, ending with the tragedy of World War II), the Italians chose a constitutional republic. But the outcome was anything but easy or predictable. The royals, who had ruled Italy since 1861, tried every means to maintain their power, first attempting to block the vote and then to sabotage its outcome. However, on June 13, 1946, when it was clear that 12 million people had voted for the Republic and more than 10 million for the monarchy, Umberto II, the last King of Italy, had to leave the country. Italy was eager to change the course of history but remained deeply divided, as the 2 million vote difference revealed a strong monarchist presence in the South and the long process of reconciliation that lay ahead. "The Republic," Jacchia's article continues, "must be a new fraternity for all Italians: it needs the willing and loyal contri- bution of all Italy's children to rebuild the country. The victors must understand this; and those who did not win must accept the outcome of the ballot with discipline and a serene heart. [...] There is an entire shattered economy to rebuild, industries to revive, paralyzed trade and commerce to reanimate. Above all, Italy's right to not be misunderstood, plundered, or muti- lated by the world must be defended. It's an immense task! But we have immense, unconditional faith in the spiritual resources, work efficiency, and will to resurrect that animates our free people." The enthusiasm (and realism) is palpable, the desire to start anew from those who had endured the terrible war, hunger, pain, deprivation, death, and loss. The writing vividly conveys the feelings of that era. In a world on the brink of multiple conflicts, where everything seems taken for granted, from democracy to peace, it is perhaps crucial to remember how precious the history we have behind us truly is. Simone Schiavinato, Editor Simone Schiavinato NEWS & FEATURES TOP STORIES PEOPLE EVENTS Member of FUSIE (Federazione Unitaria Stampa Italianaall'Estero), COGITO L'Italo-Americano Please send correspondence to P.O. BOX 6528, ALTADENA, CA 91003 www.italoamericano.org L'Italo-Americano Newspaper (a 501(c)(3) non- profit organization), www.italoamericano.org, is the largest and longest-running Italian news- paper in America, not to mention the cultural and news resource for all things Italian in the US. A bilingual newspaper which represents an historical landmark for the Italian American Communities in the West Coast and throughout the US. L'Italo-Americano benefits from subsidies by the Italian Government, Memberships and Donations intended to support and not interrupt a mission that began in 1908 to preserve and promote the Italian language and culture in the USA Periodicals postage paid at Monrovia, California 91016, and additional mailing offices. PUBLISHER Robert Barbera Grande Ufficiale EDITOR IN CHIEF Simone Schiavinato ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER Patrick Abbate EDITORIAL COORDINATOR Barbara Minafra COPY EDITOR Francesca Bezzone LOS ANGELES CONTRIBUTOR Silvia Nittoli SAN FRANCISCO CONTRIBUTOR Serena Perfetto SEATTLE CONTRIBUTOR Rita Cipalla CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Mariella Radaelli, Matt Walker, Francesca Bezzone, Luca Ferrari, Stefano Carnevali, Paula Reynolds, Teresa Di Fresco Nicoletta Curradi, Generoso D'Agnese, Jessica S. Levy, Fabrizio Del Bimbo, Maria Gloria, Chuck Pecoraro, Anthony Di Renzo Serena Perfetto, Kenneth Scambray, Chiara D'Alessio, Luca Signorini, Giulia Franceschini © 2020 L'Italo-Americano Membership: One year $59 - Single copy $2.25 POSTMASTER: Send address changes to L'Italo Americano PO Box 6528 Altadena, CA 91003 P.O.BOX 6528, ALTADENA, CA 91003 P.O.BOX 6528, ALTADENA, CA 91003

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